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تكنولوژی تربیتی - طراحی آموزشی (ADDIE) و (دیك و كاری)
 
تكنولوژی تربیتی
پنجشنبه 1 آبان 1393 :: نویسنده : احمد رضا خادمی

الگوی آموزش طراحی آموزشی (ADDIE)  یکی از الگوهای سیستمی است. البته این الگو به عنوان زیر بنای

بسیاری از الگوهای طراحی آموزشی امروزی شناخته می‌شود. این الگو طراحی موضوعات، مقاطع، دیدگاه‌های

یادگیری و محیط‌های مختلف را تحت پوشش قرار می‌دهد و از این رو یک الگوی عمومی خوانده می‌شود. الگوی

مذکور دارای پنج مرحله است: تحلیل، طراحی، تهیه، اجرا و ارزشیابی.

معمولاً ADDIE را مدلی از خانواده مدل های ISD به حساب می آورند. در این دسته می توان از مدل های

دیگری همچون مدل دیک و کاری  یا کمپ  نیز نام برد. در حالیکه مفهوم طراحی ISD تقریباً از اوایل دهه 1950 به

ادبیات طراحی آموزشی راه یافت، ADDIE اولین بار در سال 1975 به کار رفت. به دنبال نیاز ارتش آمریکا به

مدلی جامع برای طراحی آموزشی مرکز تکنولوژی آموزشی دانشگاه ایالتی کالیفرنیا اقدام به ارائه ADDIE نمود.

(هر چند مولندا یكی از تكنولوژیستهای آموزشی معروف در مقاله ای به این امر اشاره می کند که سابقه و

تدوین کننده این مدل در هیچ منبع معتبری ذکر نشده است). در ادامه این مدل توسط تمام موسسات نظامی در

سرتاسر ایالات متحده آمریکا به کار گرفته شد. این مدل در ابتدای امر 19 مرحله داشت. در اواسط 1980 مرحله

«کنترل و ارزشیابی» به «ارزشیابی» تقلیل یافت. در ادامه و پس از بازنگری های نظری و عملی آن در حین کار

به پنج مرحله اصلی و خرده مرحله های مربوط به هر یک تبدیل شد. از این زمان به بعد بود که سرواژه ADDIE 

برای اشاره به مراحل اصلی تحلیل، طراحی، توسعه، اجرا و ارزشیابی به کار رفت.

بدیهی است که این الگو به طراح آموزشی رهنمودهای کلی ارائه می‌دهد و شامل مؤلفه‌ها و اصول اختصاصی

برای بازده‌های یادگیری خاص نیست. در کنار این محدودیت، مزیت این الگو، سادگی کاربرد است. امروزه از این

الگو برای طراحی محیط‌های الکترونیکی نیز استفاده می‌شود.

 

الگوی 9 مرحله ای دیك و كاری در طراحی آموزشی:

۱. تعیین اهداف غایی یا نهایی :

اهداف غایی :

آموزشی (جمع ؛ تفریق ؛ انتگرال)

غیر آموزشی (مسواک زدن در دوران ابتدایی)

۲. تحلیل تکلیف : تحلیل خبر پردازی task analysis

تحلیل و تکلیف برای حل یک مسئله ی ریاضی چیکار کنیم :

الف. مساله را می خوانیم
ب. زیر اعداد خط می کشیم
ج. سوال مسئله را پیدا می کنیم
د. جمع یا تفریق می کنیم
ه . جواب مسئله را صورت نویسی می کنیم


۳. تعیین رفتار ورودی یادگیرندگان -----> موقعیت یادگیری :

این کار با ارزشیابی صورت می گیرد


۴. اهداف عملکردی (همان اهداف جزیی میباشد)

فایده ی عملکردی :۱.ارزشیابی کردن ۲. پاسخگو بودن

مثلا استادی شاگردان را ارزشیابی می کند سطح آنها را متوجه میشود. آن ها را به سمت جلو می برد پیشرفت کرده و می تواند پاسخگو باشد که توانسته شاگردان را از یک سطحی به سمت جلو ببرد حتی یک پله که میتواند برای مدیران یا والدین پاسخگو باشد که سطح کار چطور بوده

۵. پرسش های آزمون ملاکی

۶. راهبردهای آموزشی : کاتالیزور هستند و کار را سریع می کند و آسان . مثلا برای آموزش دادن حساب و کتاب به کودکان یک فروشگاه میوه ی الکی درست می کند و بچه ها را مشغول به خرید و فروش می کنند.

۷. مواد آموزشی


۸. ارزشیابی تکوینی :

۱. گروه ۱ یا ۲ نفره (مشاهده یا مصاحبه)
۲. گروه ۶ تا ۸ نفر (اجراء)
۳. در یک کلاس آموزشی


۹. ارزشیابی تراکمی :

۱. از کارفرمایان سوال می کنیم
۲. فارغ التحصیلان





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